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Bibliographic details

Segal, E., Feitelson, E., Goulden, S., Razin, E., Rein-Sapir, Y., Kagan, E. J., & Negev, M. (2022). Residential seismic retrofitting: Contextualizing policy packages to local circumstances. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction81, 103264.

Abstract
Seismic retrofitting is the most effective way to reduce casualties from earthquakes. Yet, seismic retrofitting of vulnerable residential structures faces many impediments. As no single policy measure can overcome these obstacles, seismic retrofitting requires that multiple policy measures be applied in tandem and therefore policy packages are necessary. As seismic threats are spread over multiple locales, differing in their characteristics, no single policy package is likely to fit all settings. Indeed, efforts to promote seismic retrofitting in California, New Zealand and Israel show high variability in success across different locales. Our study builds upon previous work which outlined three potential policy packages for seismic retrofitting, led by market forces, local government and central government respectively. In this study we advance an asymmetric decentralization approach to match the most appropriate policy package to local conditions. We combine this with seismic vulnerability assessment to prioritize the national allocation of retrofitting funds. The approach is applied to the Israeli case, a country that is prone to infrequent large earthquakes and in which there is a large, substandard housing stock.

Webpage: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420922004836

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Bibliographic details:

Vigoda-Gadot, E., Mizrahi, S., Cohen, N. et al. Citizens’ reactions to global crises: a longitudinal study during the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel. SN Soc Sci 3, 24 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43545-023-00610-0

Abstract:
This paper investigated citizens’ reactions to global crises using the COVID-19 pandemic as a natural experiment. Theories in this field are controversial and thus knowledge on such reactions, their evolution, drivers, and consequences is limited. Building on several socio-psychological foundations such as trust building theories, the fear appeal theory, the theory of planned behavior, and the spillover theory, we explain developments in three major human responses: (1) perceptual and attitudinal responses such as trust in governance and interpersonal trust; (2) emotional responses such as fear of crises; and (3) behavioral responses such as civic engagement. Using a longitudinal design, we tracked the attitudes and behaviors of Israeli citizens over 22 months (7/2019-3/2021) and at four points in time (t1–t4). Findings are based on a time-lagged analysis of 3527 participants (n1 = 602; n2 = 750; n3 = 970; n4 = 1205), and a more focused analysis of panel data (n1–4 = 256). In accordance with our theoretical foundations and specific models, we revealed a reaction pattern of shock→recognition→adjustment→reframing. We maintain that our findings improve understanding of citizens’ reactions to government policies. They provide unique empirical evidence for resilience among citizens and across social structures which testify to bouncing-back capacities from global crises in various ways. Its lessons may thus direct future studies on the relationship between citizens and governments in other global crises and emergencies.

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