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דברה שמואלי, ערן פייטלסון, אמנון רייכמן, מיכל בן גל, אהוד סגל, גד ברזילי, עלי זלצברגר

מיפוי המערך הרגולטורי להתמודדות עם רעידות אדמה בישראל 

מרכז מינרבה לחקר שלטון החוק במצבי קיצון

http://minervaextremelaw.haifa.ac.il/index.php/en/home-eng/2-uncategorised/234-earthquakes-regulation-in-israel-database

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Faure, M. G. (2016). In the aftermath of the disaster: liability and compensation mechanisms as tools to reduce disaster risks. Stan. J. Int'l L.52, 95.

Abstract:

A variety of instruments can be used to compensate victims in the aftermath of a disaster. This article argues that it is important to structure ex post compensation mechanisms in such a way that they also provide incentives for disaster risk reduction. To that end, the article analyzes the ability of a variety of instruments to provide incentives for disaster risk reduction. Further, it argues that where an operator who contributed to the disaster risk can be identified, liability rules can be employed to provide incentives to reduce the risk of disaster. In the case of natural disasters, firstparty insurance may be an appropriate tool to provide potential victims with incentives to reduce disaster risk.

In addition to analyzing the theoretical potential of various instruments to contribute to disaster risk reduction, this article provides many examples that show which instruments are used in practice. It also provides a critical analysis of international environmental agreements, arguing that the liability rules used in those agreements show particular features that may reduce their ability to contribute to disaster risk reduction. It therefore argues that there is substantial scope for policy change, more particularly in international environmental agreements. By making a smarter use of liability rules and having risk-dependent contributions to compensation mechanisms, the liability and compensation schemes in international environmental agreements could better contribute to disaster risk reduction than is currently the case.

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Aldrich, D. P. (2012). Building resilience: Social capital in post-disaster recovery. University of Chicago Press

.Abstract:

Each year, natural disasters threaten the strength and stability of communities worldwide. Yet responses to the challenges of recovery vary greatly and in ways that aren’t explained by the magnitude of the catastrophe or the amount of aid provided by national governments or the international community. The difference between resilience and disrepair, as Daniel P. Aldrich shows, lies in the depth of communities’ social capital. Building Resilience highlights the critical role of social capital in the ability of a community to withstand disaster and rebuild both the infrastructure and the ties that are at the foundation of any community. Aldrich examines the post-disaster responses of four distinct communities—Tokyo following the 1923 earthquake, Kobe after the 1995 earthquake, Tamil Nadu after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and New Orleans post-Katrina—and finds that those with robust social networks were better able to coordinate recovery. In addition to quickly disseminating information and financial and physical assistance, communities with an abundance of social capital were able to minimize the migration of people and valuable resources out of the area. With governments increasingly overstretched and natural disasters likely to increase in frequency and intensity, a thorough understanding of what contributes to efficient reconstruction is more important than ever. Building Resilience underscores a critical component of an effective response.

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Avraham, E. & Ketter, E. (2008). Media StrategMedia Strategies for Marketing Places in Crisis: Improving the Image of Cities, Countries and Tourist Destinations. Oxford, England: Elsevier/Butterworth Heinemann.

Abstract:

Growing competition between countries and cities over attracting infrastructure, investment, tourists, capital and national and international status mean that today, a negative image is more harmful than ever. Whatever the cause of the negative image, places perceived as dangerous, frightening, or boring are at a distinct disadvantage. Many decision makers and marketers stand by helplessly, frustrated by their knowledge that in most cases, their city's negative image is not based on well-grounded facts. Given that stereotypes are not easily changed or dismissed, the challenge facing these decision makers is great. Analyses of many case studies show interesting examples of places that tried to change a negative image into a positive one, in order to bringing back tourists, investors and residents.

Although a great deal of knowledge about crisis communications has accumulated in recent years, very little has been written about strategies to improve places' negative images. The aim of "Media Strategies for Marketing Places in Crisis" is to discuss the various dimensions of an image crisis and different strategies to overcome it, both in practice and theory. "Media Strategies for Marketing Places in Crisis" is based on the careful analysis of dozens of case studies, advertisements, public relations campaigns, press releases, academic articles, news articles, and the websites of cities, countries and tourist destinations.

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Avraham, E. & Ketter, E. (2008). Will We Be Safe There? Analyzing strategies for altering places' unsafe images. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(3): 196-204.

Abstract:

Many countries, cities and tourist destinations are considered risky or unsafe due to terror attacks, natural disasters, epidemics, crime waves, wars, coups, racial conflicts, social-economic disorders or political unrest. The association of places with danger or bloodshed is a serious obstacle to their attractiveness and is likely to have a negative affect on tourism and investments. The goal of this article is to present three groups of media strategies adopted by places all over the world in order to be perceived as safe: source-focused strategies, message-focused strategies and audience-focused strategies. This paper is based on a variety of qualitative research methods and is the result of careful analysis of dozens of case studies, advertisements, public relations campaigns, press releases, academic articles, news articles, and websites of cities, countries and tourist destinations that were widely considered as unsafe as the result of sudden or ongoing crises. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy (2008) 4, 196–204. doi:10.1057/pb.2008.10

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Biggs, D. C., Hall, M., & Stoeckl, N. (2012): The resilience of  formal and informal tourism enterprises to disasters: reef tourism in Phuket, Thailand, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20:5, 645-665


Abstract:

This paper explores the resilience of vulnerable tourism sectors to disasters in a period of global change and interdependence. The coral reef tourism industry is highly vulnerable to natural disasters and economic and political shocks. The paper also explains why enterprise resilience is central to sustainable tourism management, for economic, socio-cultural and environmental reasons. It extends the concepts of ecological and social resilience to that of enterprise resilience. Using scenarios and interviews with key enterprise staff, the study contrasts the levels of resilience of formal and informal reef tourism enterprises, and the factors associated with the enterprise resilience in Phuket, Thailand, following the 2004 tsunami and the 2008 political crisis. Informal enterprises reported better financial condition in a crisis scenario and higher levels of social capital in the form of government, family and community support than formal enterprises. Formal and informal enterprises both enjoy high lifestyle benefits from reef tourism, which supports resilience. Most formal enterprises had part foreign ownership/management (61%); no informal enterprise had any foreign ownership or management. Management policies supporting reef tourism should consider local nuances and the importance of lifestyle benefits for both formal and informal enterprises, and take steps to enable enterprise flexibility and cost-cutting during crises.

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Alexander, D. E. (2002). Principles of emergency planning and management. Oxford University Press on Demand.‏

 

Abstract:

David Alexander provides a concise yet comprehensive and systematic primer on how to prepare for a disaster. The book introduces the methods, procedures, protocols and strategies of emergency planning, with an emphasis on situations within industrialized countries. It is designed to be a reference source and manual from which emergency mangers can extract ideas, suggestions and pro-forma methodologies to help them design and implement emergency plans.

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Cann, Arnie, Calhoun, Lawrence G., Tedeschi, Richard G. and Solomon, David T.(2010). Posttraumatic Growth and Depreciation as Independent Experiences and Predictors of Well-Being, Journal of Loss and Trauma, 15: 3,151 — 166

 

Abstract:

Positive changes (posttraumatic growth [PTG]) and negative changes (posttraumatic depreciation [PTD]) were assessed using the PTGI-42 with persons reporting changes from a stressful event.

PTG and PTD were uncorrelated, and PTG was much greater than PTD. PTG was positively related to disruption of core beliefs and recent deliberate rumination and negatively related to recent intrusive rumination. PTD was positively related to intrusive rumination. Quality of life and meaning in one’s life were positively related to PTG, negatively related to PTD, and an interaction indicated that PTG moderated the impact of PTD on both, indicating that PTG and PTD may separately contribute to current well-being.

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de Guzman, E. M. (2003). Towards total disaster risk management approach. United National Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Asian Disaster Response Unit.‏

Abstract:

There is a perennial gap between theory and practice, between academia and active professionals in the field of disaster management. This gap means that valuable lessons are not learned and people die or suffer as a result. This book opens a dialogue between theory and practice. It offers vital lessons to practitioners from scholarship on natural hazards, disaster risk management and reduction and developments studies, opening up new insights in accessible language with practical applications. It also offers to academics the insights of the enormous experience practitioners have accumulated, highlighting gaps in research and challenging assumptions and theories against the reality of experience. Disaster Management covers issues in all phases of the disaster cycle: preparedness, prevention, response and recovery. It also addresses cross-cutting issues including political, economic and social factors that influence differential vulnerability, and key areas of practice such as vulnerability mapping, early warning, infrastructure protection, emergency management, reconstruction, health care and education, and gender issues. The team of international authors combine their years of experience in research and the field to offer vital lessons for practitioners, academics and students alike.

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Dillon, B. (2014). Blackstone's Emergency Planning, Crisis, and Disaster Management. Oxford University Press

Abstract:

Blackstone's Emergency Planning, Crisis, and Disaster Management is a practical guide for those involved in all aspects of emergency preparedness, resilience, and response. Primarily focused on the requirements of the Civil Contingencies Act 2004, it has been developed from the highly regarded Emergency Planning Officers' Handbook.

The complete toolkit for anyone involved in emergency planning, business continuity, and resilience management, this must-have guide offers a comprehensive, chronological guide to each stage of emergency planning, from creating a plan or exercise through to setting up a control room and debriefing for future improvement and development. There is also full coverage of how the emergency response is managed by each of the main agencies involved, helping you to gain a greater understanding of what to expect from each agency and the individuals participating, so they can be better integrated into an exercise or plan. Overviews at the start of each chapter, key point and top tip boxes, as well as tasks and flowcharts provide you with the complete reference, whether you are beginning your emergency planning or simply need to refresh your memory as you initiate an exercise.

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